The first few times a child looks at addition and subtraction problems can be a confusing experience. It is very important for children to be able to effortlessly recall reliable methods to answer number facts.

One excellent method is

To find the missing number, we can

Once the two easier problems are solved,

Since

And in words...

How far is it from

Now try this:

So,

The ability to use this "up to and over 10" method relies on the student knowing a series of prerequisite skills. Here is a list of those skills. When mastered, these skills will enable students to have

For each tip, I will also provide practice problems.

5 + 5 = 9 + 9 =

5 + 6 = 5 + 5 + 1 = 8 + 7 = 8 + 8 - 1 =

7 + 2 = 8 + 3 =

6 + ___ = 9 7 + ___ = 11

How far apart are 6 and 10?

How far is it from 9 up to 12?

8 + 2 = 6 + 4 =

10 + 7 = 10 + 9 =

10 + ___ = 16 10 + ___ = 19

Use the notion of "how much is left" when the numbers are fairly far apart, and count down.

For example,

Use the notion of "how far apart are the two numbers" when the numbers are fairly close to each other, and count up.

For example,

For the following examples, decide which method you would use:

100 - 98 = 100 - 3 = 100 - 87 = 100 - 15 =

Stay tuned for my next Blog posting to learn some more tips to effortlessly recall number facts.

One excellent method is

**Filling in the Gap**. Take a look at the following example.**8**+ ___ =**13**To find the missing number, we can

*fill in the gap*between**8**and**13**by solving:**8**+___ =**10 and 10**+___ =**13**Once the two easier problems are solved,

*adding*the two answers together will give the child the desired result. Take a look.Since

**8**+*2*=**10**and**10**+*3*=**13,**the "gap" is**5**(*2*+*3*).*Check the result:***8**+**5**=**13.**And in words...

How far is it from

**8***up to***10**(2) - how far is it from**10***up to***13**(3)? From**8***up to***13**is**5**(2 + 3) so**8**+**5**=**13.**Now try this:

**7**+ ___ =**16****7**+ ____ =**10**and**10**+ ____ =**16****7**+ ___ =**16 ?**Since ____ + ____ = ____, the "gap" is ____.So,

**7**+____ =**16**The ability to use this "up to and over 10" method relies on the student knowing a series of prerequisite skills. Here is a list of those skills. When mastered, these skills will enable students to have

**effortlessly recall**of addition and subtraction facts.For each tip, I will also provide practice problems.

**ADDITION TIPS****1)****Doubles**5 + 5 = 9 + 9 =

**2)****Doubles plus/minus 1**5 + 6 = 5 + 5 + 1 = 8 + 7 = 8 + 8 - 1 =

**3)****Counting on (start at x and count up by y)**7 + 2 = 8 + 3 =

**4)****Breaking down numbers**6 + ___ = 9 7 + ___ = 11

**5)****How far apart are two numbers? (How far is it from x up to y?)**How far apart are 6 and 10?

How far is it from 9 up to 12?

**6)****Combinations that make 10**8 + 2 = 6 + 4 =

**7)****10 plus a number**10 + 7 = 10 + 9 =

**8)****10 plus***what*number?10 + ___ = 16 10 + ___ = 19

**SUBTRACTION TIPS**

1)1)

**How much is left?**Use the notion of "how much is left" when the numbers are fairly far apart, and count down.

For example,

**12**-**3**is best thought of as "counting down from**12**by**3**."**2)****How far apart are the two numbers (***how far is it*from the smaller number*up to*the bigger number)?Use the notion of "how far apart are the two numbers" when the numbers are fairly close to each other, and count up.

For example,

**12**-**9**is best thought of as "how far is it from**9**up to**12**."For the following examples, decide which method you would use:

**How much is left**or**How far apart**100 - 98 = 100 - 3 = 100 - 87 = 100 - 15 =

Stay tuned for my next Blog posting to learn some more tips to effortlessly recall number facts.